**Book chapters**

- Blanton, M. (in press). Algebraic reasoning in Grades 3-5. In M. Battista (Ed.),
*Reasoning and Sense Making in Grades 3-5.*Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. - Blanton, M. (in press). Practices that support the development of children’s algebraic thinking. In E. Silver & P. Kenney (Eds.),
*Lessons learned from research: Volume 2: Useful research on teaching important mathematics to all students.*Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. - Blanton, M., Brizuela, B., Stephens, A., Knuth, E., Isler, I., Gardiner, A., Stroud, R., Fonger, N., & Stylianou, D. (in press). Implementing a Framework for Early Algebra. To appear in C. Kieran (Ed.).
*Teaching and Learning Algebraic Thinking with 5- to 12-year-olds.*The Global Evolution of an Emerging Field of Research and Practice. - Stephens, A. & Knuth, E. (in press). Algebraic reasoning in Grades 6-8. In M. Battista (Ed.),
*Reasoning and Sense Making in Grades 6-8.*Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. - Strachota, S., Knuth, E., & Blanton, M. (in press). Cycles of Generalizing Activities in the Classroom. To appear in C. Kieran (Ed.).
*Teaching and Learning Algebraic Thinking with 5- to 12-year-olds. The Global Evolution of an Emerging Field of Research and Practice.* - Stephens, A., Ellis, A., Blanton, M., & Brizuela, B. (2017). Algebraic thinking in the elementary and middle grades. In J. Cai (Ed.),
*Compendium for Research in Mathematics Education*(pp. 386-420). Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. - Bolt, D., Kim, J., Blanton, M., & Knuth, E. (2016).
*Applications of Item Response Theory in mathematics education research. Invited chapter to appear in Psychometrics and assessment in mathematics education: Opportunities, challenges, and interdisciplinary collaborations, a monograph of the Journal for Research in Mathematics Education.* - Knuth, E. & Stephens, A. (2016). The equal sign does matter. In E. Silver & P. Kenney (Eds.),
*Lessons learned from research: Volume 2: Useful research on teaching important mathematics to all students*(pp. 135-140). Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. - Stephens, A. & Blanton, M. (2016). Algebraic reasoning in prekindergarten-grade 2. In M. Battista (Ed.).
*Reasoning and Sense Making in Prekindergarten-Grade 2*(pp. 71-104). Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.

**Journal articles**

- Fonger, N. L., Stephens, A., Blanton, M., Isler, I., Knuth, E., Gardiner, A. (in press). Developing a learning progression for curriculum, instruction, and student learning.
*Cognition and Instruction.* - Stephens, A., Fonger, N., Strachota, S., Isler, I., Blanton, M., Knuth, E., & Gardiner, A. (2017). A Learning Progression for Elementary Students’ Functional Thinking.
*Mathematical Thinking and Learning, 19*(3), 143-166. - Knuth, E., Stephens, A., Blanton, M., & Gardiner, A. (2016). Building an early foundation for algebra success.
*Phi Delta Kappan, 97*(6), 65-68. - Blanton, M., Stephens, A., Knuth, E., Gardiner, A., Isler, I., & Kim, J. (2015). The development of children's algebraic thinking: The impact of a comprehensive early algebra intervention in third grade.
*Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 46*(1), 39-87. - Stephens, A., Blanton, M., Knuth, E., Isler, I., & Gardiner, A. (2015). Just say YES to early algebra! Teaching Children Mathematics, 22(2), 92-101.
- Isler, I., Marum, T., Stephens, A., Blanton, M., Knuth, E., & Gardiner, A. (2014). The string task: Not just for high school.
*Teaching Children Mathematics, 21*(5), 282-292. - Stephens, A., Knuth, E., Blanton, M., Isler, I., Gardiner, A., & Marum, T. (2013). Equation structure and the meaning of the equal sign: The impact of task selection in eliciting elementary students’ understandings.
*Journal of Mathematical Behavior 32*(2), 173-182.

**Conference Presentations**

- Blanton, M., Isler, I., Stephens, A., Gardiner, A., Knuth, E., Demers, L., & Strachota, S. (2017).
*Longitudinal growth in children’s algebraic thinking: Results of an Early Algebra Intervention across Grades 3–5.*Paper presented at the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics Research Conference, San Antonio, TX. - Isler, I., Strachota, S., Stephens, A., Fonger, N., Blanton, M., Gardiner, A., & Knuth, E. (2017).
*Grade 6 students’ abilities to represent function rules.*Paper presented at the Tenth Congress of European Research in Mathematics Education, Dublin, Ireland. - Prough, S., Strachota, S., Veltri, R., Isler, I., Blanton, M., Gardiner, A., Knuth, E., & Stephens, A. (2017).
*Fostering Generalizations: a classroom discourse analysis.*Paper presented at 39th annual meeting of the North American Chapter of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics, Indianapolis, IN: Purdue University. - Prough, S., Veltri, R., Strachota, S., Stephens, A., Knuth, E., & Blanton, M. (2017).
*Supporting Students’ Algebraic Reasoning in the Early Grades.*Presentation at Wisconsin Mathematics Council Annual Conference (National Council of Teachers of Mathematics-Affiliate), Green Lake, WI. - Stephens, A., Stroud, R., Knuth, E., Blanton, M., Stylinaou, D., Strachota, S., Isler, I., & Gardiner, A. (2017).
*The impact of a large-scale early algebra intervention.*Paper presented at the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics Research Conference, San Antonio, TX. - Strachota, S., Knuth, E., Stephens, A., & Blanton, M. (2017).
*The co-development of Functional Thinking and Equivalence.*Paper presented at the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics Research Conference, San Antonio, TX. - Strachota, S., Stephens, A., Knuth, E., Blanton, M., Isler, I., & Gardiner, A. (2017).
*The interplay between students’ understandings of proportional and functional relationships.*Paper presented at 39th annual meeting of the North American Chapter of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics, Indianapolis, IN: Purdue University. - Veltri, R., Prough, S., & Strachota, S. (2017).
*Supporting Student Generalizing: An Analysis of Classroom Discourse.*Poster presented at the 27th Society of Text and Discourse Conference, Philadelphia, PA. - Veltri, R., Prough, S., Strachota, S., Knuth, E., Stephens, A., Stylianou, D., Blanton, M., Stroud, R., & Gardiner, A. (2017).
*The Impact of a Teacher-led Early Algebra Intervention.*Poster presented at 39th annual meeting of the North American Chapter of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics, Indianapolis, IN: Purdue University. - Blanton, M., (2016).
*How do we prepare students for algebra?*Invited keynote address at the 2016 North Carolina Council of Teachers of Mathematics, Greensboro, NC. - Blanton, M., Brizuela, B., & Stephens, A. (2016).
*Children’s understanding and use of variable notation.*Paper presented at the 13th International Congress on Mathematics Education. Hamburg, Germany. - Blanton, M., Brizuela, B., & Stephens, A. (2016).
*Elementary children’s algebraic thinking.*Paper presented at the 13th Annual Conference of the International Congress on Mathematical Education, Hamburg, Germany. - Blanton, M., Isler, I., Stephens, A., Knuth, E., Gardiner, A., Strachota, S. (2016).
*A longitudinal study of elementary students’ use of variable notation to represent mathematical generalizations.*Paper presented at the American Educational Research Association, Washington, DC. - Blanton, M., Knuth, E., Stephens, A., Stylianou, D., Stroud, R., Gardiner, A., Isler, I., & Strachota, S. (2016).
*The Impact of a Teacher-Led Early Algebra Intervention on Children's Algebra-Readiness for Middle School: Grade 3 Results.*Presentation at the Annual IES PI Meeting, Washington, DC. - Brizuela, B., Blanton, M., & Stephens, A. (2016).
*Children’s use and understanding of variable notation.*Paper presented at the 13th Annual Conference of the International Congress on Mathematical Education, Hamburg, Germany. - Eiland, M.D. (2016).
*Impact of early algebra instruction across populations of diverse learners.*Paper presented at the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics Research Pre-Session, San Francisco, CA. - Fonger, N. L., Stephens, A., Isler, I., Strachota, S. Blanton, M., Knuth, E. (2016).
*An Early Algebra Learning Progression for Characterizing and Supporting Students’ Generalization and Representation of Functions: A Longitudinal Approach to Integrating Curriculum, Instruction, Assessment, and Student Learning.*Institute of Education Sciences Principal Investigators Meeting. Washington, D.C. December 2016. - Gardiner, A., (2016).
*A Journey Through Early Algebra.*Invited keynote address

at the 2016 North Carolina Council of Teachers of Mathematics, Greensboro, NC. - Stephens, A., Fonger, N., Blanton, M, Knuth, E., Strachota, S., & Isler, I. (2016).
*Elementary students’ generalization and representation of functional relationships: A learning progressions approach.*Poster presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Education Research Association, Washington, DC. - Strachota, S. (2016).
*Cycles of Generalizing Activities in the Classroom.*Paper presented at the 13th Annual Conference of the International Congress on Mathematical Education, Hamburg, Germany. - Strachota, S., Fonger, N., Stephens, A., Blanton, M., Knuth, E., & Gardiner, A. M. (2016). Understanding Variation in Elementary Students’ Functional Thinking. In C. Csíkos, A. Rausch, & J. Szitányi (Eds.).
*Proceedings of the 40th Annual Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education,*(pp. 243-250). Szeged, Hungary. - Strachota, S., Isler, I., Fonger, N., Blanton, M., & Gardiner, A. M. (2016).
*Analyzing Generalizations Through Discourse.*Poster presented at 38th annual meeting of the North American Chapter of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics, Tuscon, AZ: The University of Arizona. - Strachota, S., Kang, H., & Isler, I. (2016).
*Engaging in Algebraic Reasoning Through Properties of Number and Operation.*Presentation at Wisconsin Mathematics Council Annual Conference (National Council of Teachers of Mathematics-Affiliate), Green Lake, WI. - Blanton, M. (2015).
*Early algebra problems worth solving and why.*Invited presentation for “Problems Worth Solving” Strand, Annual Conference of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, Boston, MA. - Fonger, N., Stephens, A., Blanton, M., & Knuth, E. (2015). A learning progressions approach to early algebra research and practice. In T. G. Bartell, K. N. Bieda, R. T. Putnam, K. Bradfield, & H. Dominguez (Eds.),
*Proceedings of the 37th Annual Meeting of the North American Chapter of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education*(pp. 201-204). East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University. - Kang, H., Stephens, A., Blanton, M., Gardiner, A., Isler, I., & Knuth, E. (2015).
*Examining students’ algebraic thinking through interview assessments.*Paper presented at the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics Research Conference, Boston, MA. - Strachota, S., Isler, I., Kang, H., Stephens, A., Blanton, M., Knuth, E., & Gardiner, A. (2015).
*Arithmetic Properties as a Route into Algebraic Reasoning.*Poster presented at 37th Annual Meeting of the North American Chapter of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education, East Lansing, MI. - Blanton, M. (2014).
*Learning Progressions in Algebraic Practices: Developing the Ideas of Equality and Variables.*Invited Online Keynote Address for NCTM: Algebra Readiness for All Students. - Isler, I., Blanton, M., Murphy Gardiner, A., Knuth, E., Stephens, A., & Kang, H. (2014).
*A comparison of elementary and middle grade students’ algebraic reasoning.*Proceedings of the Joint Meetings of the 38th Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education and the 36th Annual Meeting of International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education, North American Chapter. Vancouver, BC. - Blanton, M. (2013).
*Early algebra: Functional thinking as a context for proof and reasoning.*Invited presentation for the Learn-Reflect Strand for Wisconsin Mathematics Council Annual Conference (National Council of Teachers of Mathematics-Affiliate), Green Lake, WI. - Blanton, M. (2013).
*Early algebra in the era of Common Core.*Invited Keynote Address, North Carolina Math Summit, SAS, Cary, NC. - Blanton, M. (2013).
*Learning Progressions in Algebraic Practices: Developing the Ideas of Equality and Variables.*Invited Online Keynote Address for NCTM: Algebra Readiness for All Students. - Blanton, M., & Gardiner, A. (2013).
*Creating mathematical tasks to support children’s early algebraic reasoning.*Gallery workshop presented at the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics Annual Meeting, Denver, CO. - Isler, I., Stephens, A., Gardiner, A., Blanton, M., & Knuth, E. (2013).
*Fourth-grade students’ abilities to write algebraic expressions and equations.*Poster presented at the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics Research Pre-Session, Denver, CO. - Isler, I., Stephens, A., Gardiner, A., Knuth, E., & Blanton, M. (2013). Third-graders’ generalizations about even numbers and odd numbers: The impact of an early algebra intervention.
*Proceedings of the 35th Annual Meeting of the North American Chapter of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education*(pp. 140-143). Chicago, IL: ERIC Clearinghouse for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education. - Stephens, A.C. (2013).
*Extending arithmetic tasks to engage students in proof.*Invited presentation for the Learn-Reflect Strand for Wisconsin Mathematics Council Annual Conference (National Council of Teachers of Mathematics-Affiliate), Green Lake, WI. - Blanton, M. (2012).
*Can children reason algebraically?*Invited presentation at the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics Regional Conference, Chicago, Illinois. - Blanton, M. (2012).
*Children’s algebra understanding: Perspectives from upper and lower elementary grades.*Presentation at CSTL Project SHARE, TERC, Cambridge, MA. - Blanton, M. (2012).
*Designing, refining, and validating learning trajectories/progressions in early algebra.*Presented as part of the Research Symposium “Learning progressions and trajectories in research: Methodological and theoretical challenges” at the National Science Foundation DRK-12 PI Meeting, Washington, DC. - Blanton, M. (2012).
*Does early algebra matter: Results of a Grades 3-5 early algebra intervention.*Invited presentation at the North Carolina State University Friday Institute, November, 2012. - Blanton, M., Gardiner, A., & Marum, T. (2012).
*Building Common Core Mathematical Practices through early algebra.*Presentation at the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics Annual Meeting, Philadelphia, PA. - Blanton, M., & Knuth, E. (2012).
*Developing algebra-ready students for middle school: Exploring the impact of early algebra.*Poster presented at the National Science Foundation DRK-12 PI Meeting, Washington, DC. - Blanton, M., Knuth, E., Stephens, A., Gardiner, A., Isil, I., Marum, T. (2012).
*Shifts in children’s algebra understanding using a learning progressions approach to early algebra.*Paper presented as part of the Research Symposium, “Measuring early algebra impact: Quantitative studies of children’s algebra learning,” at the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics Research Pre-Session, Philadelphia, PA. - Blanton, M., Knuth, E., Stephens, A., Gardiner, A., Isler, I., & Marum, T. (2012).
*Within-grade impacts of an early algebra classroom intervention.*Paper presented at the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics Research Pre-Session, Philadelphia, PA. - Blanton, M., Stephens, A., Gardiner, A., Marum, T., Knuth, E., Isler, I. (2012).
*Aligning early algebra learning progressions and assessments in Grades 6-7.*Working symposium presented at the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics Research Pre-Session, Philadelphia, PA. - Isler, I., Stephens, A., Knuth, E., Blanton, M., Marum, T., Gardiner, A. (2012).
*Elementary students’ recognition of algebraic structure: Not all tasks are created equal.*Paper presented at the 2012 Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Vancouver, BC. - Stephens, A. C., Blanton, M. L., Knuth, E. J., Gardiner, A. M., Marum, T., & Isler, I. (2012).
*Aligning early algebra learning progressions and assessments in grades 3-8.*Working session presented at the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics Research Presession, Philadelphia, PA. - Stephens, A., Isler, I., Marum, T., Blanton, M., Knuth, E., & Gardiner, A. (2012).
*From recursive pattern to correspondence rule: Developing students’ abilities to engage in functional thinking*. Proceedings of the 34th Annual Conference of the North American Chapter of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education. Kalamazoo, MI: Western Michigan University. - Blanton, M., Gardiner, A., & Marum, T. (2011).
*Integrating early algebra into the Common Core.*Presentation at the Kaput Center STEM Regional Network Meeting Roundtable Series, University of Massachusetts Dartmouth. - Blanton, M., Knuth, E., Gardiner, A., Isler, I., Marum, T. & Stephens, A. (2011).
*Investigating early algebra learning progressions for Grades 3-8.*Working symposium presented at the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics Research Pre-Session, Indianapolis, Indiana. - Blanton, M., Stephens, A., Marum, T., Gardiner, A. M., & Knuth, E. (2011).
*Investigating early algebra learning progressions for grades 3-8.*Working session presented at the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics Research Presession, Indianapolis, IN. - Marum, T., Isler, I., Stephens, A., Gardiner, A., Blanton, M., Knuth, E. (2011). From specific value to variable: Developing students’ abilities to represent unknowns. In L. R. Wiest & T. Lamberg (Eds.).
*Proceedings of the 33rd Annual Meeting of the North American Chapter of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education*(pp. 106-113). Reno, NV: University of Nevada, Reno. - Blanton, M. (2010).
*Children’s understanding of functions.*Invited panel presentation at the CADRE/National Science Foundation PI Meeting, Washington, DC. - Blanton, M. (2010).
*Early algebra: What children can do and why it matters for mathematics education.*Invited lecture, STEM Interdisciplinary Colloquium Series, Tufts University. - Blanton, M. (2010).
*What do we know about early algebra?*Presented as part of the Invited Symposium, “What Do We Know About Early Algebra?: Reflecting on a Decade of Research” at the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics Research Pre-Session, San Diego, CA. - Blanton, M., & Knuth, E. (2010).
*Analyzing early algebra learning progressions for Grades 3-8.*Symposium presentation at the CADRE/National Science Foundation PI Meeting, Washington, DC.

**Blog**

- Isler, I., Stephens, A., & Kang, H. (2016). Even and odd numbers: A journey into the algebraic thinking practice of justification. Teaching Children Mathematics. [Web log]. Retrieved from http://www.nctm.org/tcm-blog